Home  Glossary  Resources  

Ingress Protection (IP) Ratings

What does IP stand for?
IP is an acronym for Ingress Protection
Why is Ingress Protection Important?
Liquid and/or solid particle ingress into electrical equipment may not only be harmful to the equipment, it may also be dangerous to the operator. Therefore when buying electrical equipment whether it be an electric motor, a light fiiting or an enclosure, it is essential to know what degree of ingress protection the item offers.
So how is Ingress Protection quoted?
An "IP" number, or as it is commonly known, an IP rating is used to specify the environmental protection offered. The IP rating is composed of two numbers, the first referring to the protection against solid object ingress and the second against liquid ingress. The higher the number the better the protection.
Are there standards covering these ratings?
The applicable European standards for ingress protection are:
- BS EN 60529 Specification of Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures
- IEC 529 Specification of Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures
What are the numerical codes?
Ingress Protection Classification
First NumberSecond Number
IPProtection ProvidedIPProtection Provided
0No Protection0No Protection
1Protected against solid objects up to 50mm e.g. accidental touch by hands1Protected against vertically falling drops of water e.g. condensation
2Protected against solid objects up to 12mm e.g. fingers2Protected against direct sprays of water up to 15 deg from the vertical
3Protected against solid objects over 2.5mm e.g. tools3Protected against direct sprays of water up to 60 deg from the vertical
4Protected against solid objects over 1mm e.g. wires4Protected against water sprayed from all directions - limited ingress permitted
5Protected against dust - limited ingress (no harmful deposit)5Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions - limited ingress permitted
6Totally protected against dust6Protected against strong jets of water e.g. for use on shipdecks - limited ingress permitted
  7Protected against the affects of immersion between 15cm and 1m
  8Protected against long periods of immersion under pressure

What do they use outside Europe?
In North America, the NEMA classification is used. NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) is a US trade association representing the interests of electroindustry manufacturers of products used in the generation, transmission and distribution, control, and end-use of electricity.
How does the IP and NEMA systems compare?
The IEC and NEMA degrees of protection can not be fully compared as equivalent ratings. The NEMA Standard includes tests for environmental conditions such as mechanical damage, corrosion, rusting, ice formation, etc. However the follwoing table can be used as a guide:
NEMA Enclosure
Type Number
1IP 10
2IP 11
3IP 54
3RIP 14
3SIP 54
4 and 4XIP 56
5IP 52
6 and 6PIP 67

Does NEMA produce standards?
NEMA Standard Publication 250 and UL 40 Standard Publication both provide further information on ingress protection ratings used in the US.

Sponsored Links

Further Reading

17th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations: Explained and Illustrated
Practical Electrical Equipment and Installations in Hazardous Areas
Electrical Installation Calculations
C & I reources and instrument utilities

C&I Resources

Cable Gland Selector
CE Marking
Flange Dimensions
Ingress Protection
Pipe Schedules
Relief Valve Orifice Size
Temperature Class
Temperature Conversion
Thermocouple Types
Valve Leakage
Vortex Meters
Wires and Cables

Sponsored Links



© Copyright 2006-17. All rights reserved.